World Bulletin / News Desk
Women who get a little more than the recommended daily amount of iron in their diets may be less likely to get a more severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), according to a U.S. study.
Researchers writing in the American Journal of Epidemiology followed about 3,000 women over 10 years and found that those who consumed more than 20 milligrams (mg) per day of iron sources were 30 to 40 percent less likely to develop PMS than women who got less of the mineral.
"Most previous studies of PMS have focused on effective treatments and factors that differ between women who have PMS and those who don't," said lead author Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson, from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst.
"We were interested in looking further at some specific minerals," she added, noting that her team had previously studied the relationship between vitamin intake and PMS.
For the study, the researchers limited their analysis to PMS in which symptoms such as breast tenderness, bloating, depression and anxiety are so severe they "substantially impact life activities and social relationships."
That type of PMS affects between 8 percent and 15 percent of U.S. women, they wrote.
The study was based on data from a large ongoing study of U.S. nurses, who were between the ages of 25 and 42 years old in 1989, and it focuses on 3,025 women who did not have PMS in 1991.
Each woman completed three food questionnaires sent to them over the next 10 years, which asked how often they were eating 131 different types of foods and supplements. The researchers then compared the diets of the 1,057 women who went on to develop severe PMS during the study period to the diets of the 1,968 women who did not.
Overall, eating a diet that provided about 22 mg of iron every day was linked to a 33 percent decrease in a woman's risk of developing PMS during those 10 years, compared to the women who ate the least amount of iron - about 10 mg. The recommendations are 18 mg of iron per day.
Even greater iron consumption was tied to an even larger drop in risk for PMS, but some of the women were eating diets with too much of the mineral.
"I think our message - based on these data - is meeting the (recommended daily amount) for iron seems to have a significantly lower risk of PMS," said Bertone-Johnson. "We don't want to recommend women take the upper limit (of 42 mg) because of potential adverse consequences."
Women in the study with the highest iron intakes tended to get most of the mineral from non-meat sources.
The U.S. Institute of Medicine, which sets recommended dietary allowances for nutrients, points out that iron consumed from meat and poultry sources is more easily processed in the body, and that people who get their ion only from a vegetarian diet might want to consume as much as twice the recommended amount.
Bertone-Johnson said that while the research can't prove iron prevents PMS, they suspect the mineral may have something to do with the production of serotonin, a molecule that plays a role in many processes in the body and in the brain. Iron is necessary for the body to manufacture serotonin, they write.
"Our advice from this study is pretty similar to what we've taken from previous work... Not focusing on any one nutrient per se, just make sure your diet is balanced and you're meeting the '(recommended daily amount) on your own vitamins," Bertone-Johnson said.
The researchers found that on average the rate of tuberculosis (TB) in big cities was twice the rate of the national TB incidence
Residual sour gas was then burnt in flares at Kashagan's processing plants, polluting the environment, the ministry said in a statement.
Researchers from Britain and the United States found what they describe as the first hard evidence that malaria creeps to higher elevations during warmer years
The CPC's latest outlook brings the forecaster in line with other global meteorologists that have raised their outlook for El Nino's potential return this year.
The child is the second case, following an earlier instance in Mississippi, in which doctors may have brought HIV in a newborn into remission by administering antiretroviral drugs in the first hours of life.
"We will resolutely declare war against pollution as we declared war against poverty," PM Li told the almost 3,000 delegates to the country's largely rubber-stamp legislature in a wide-ranging address carried live on state television.
The research, which lends weight to campaigns for smoking to be banned in private cars and homes, found passive smoking leads to a thickening of children's artery walls, adding some 3.3 years to the age of blood vessels by adulthood.
Professor Jean-Michel Claverie, from the National Centre of Scientific Research (CNRS) at the University of Aix-Marseille in France, said "this is the first time we've seen a virus that's still infectious after this length of time."
The 76-year-old man died on Sunday, 75 days after the operation, the Georges Pompidou European Hospital in Paris said in a statement, adding that the cause of his death could not be known for sure at this stage.
Pacific islanders were eating fewer coconuts as a source of fat and many people in Southeast Asia were getting fewer calories from rice
The researchers had been able to clone the antibodies and would test if they were able to give immunity to a person without the virus
The condition of the baby with kidney disease returns to normal after doctors in the Turkish city of Konya decide against abortion to begin treatment in the womb
Australia's conservative government approved plans to dredge 3 million cubic metres of sand for the port expansion
Frequent nightmares were very common for one in ten children, especially between the ages of three and seven, but effects resulting from nightmares were much more severe in 12-year-olds.
The JAMA Psychiatry suggested that tihis was in connection to sperm mutations in men who become fathers relatively late in life, after comparing children of 24-year-old fathers and 45-year-old fathers.
Millions of people around the world go to bed hungry every night, and yet millions of tons of food end up in trash cans or spoiled on the way to market.