World Bulletin / News Desk
Ertugrul Ghazi, one of the Seljucki commanders in Anatolia, rode his tribes to western Anatolia, where they settled near the lake of Nicosea at the borders of the Byzantine Empire. According to the documents, Ertugrul Ghazi had three sons and following his death, Othman succedeed him to rule the tribe.
Othman Ghazi was in continous clashes with the neighboring princedoms and the Byzantine forces, surrounding his people from the western and northern borders. Byzantine forces struggled to finish off continous raids, a tactical maneouvre of the irregular warfare carried out by Othman Ghazi’s cavlaryman. In the early Ottoman records, these skirmishes were often described as a ‘‘holy war against the kuffar (infidels)’’, which was seemingly the driving inspiration for Othman Ghazi’s statecraft. Paul Wittek, a foremost historian of the early Ottoman Empire, unhesitatingly called this pattern ‘‘Ghaza ideology’’ which he considered as the defining characteristics behind the success of Ottoman forces at the expense of others.
Asikpashazade, an Ottoman historian who lived in the 15th century, narrates the foundation of the Ottoman state in his historical account:
‘‘....Now these people decided that they wanted to perform the Friday congregational prayer, also that they wanted to have a Magistrate (Qadi). There was a holy man named Dursun Fakih who used to act as prayer-leader for those people. They explained their wish to him. He in turn came and spoke with ‘Othman Ghazi’s stepfather Edebali about it.
While they were talking, ‘Othman Ghazi came over and inquired into the matter. When he learned what they wanted, he said, “Do whatever seems correct to you.” ....They gave the offices of Magistrate and Preacher (Khatib) to Dursun Fakih. The Friday sermon (khutba) was first read in Karaja Hisar. The festival sermon (bayram khutba) was read in Eskishehir, and they performed the festival prayer there. The first sermon given in the name of ‘Othman took place in 1290/689’’
Othman Ghazi was quick to establish his rule and strenghtened the position of the Magistrate so that the rule of law prevailed in his lands. At a time when the rule of the Seljucks was tearing apart and chaos was spreading in Anatolia, this step was of fundemental importance to solidfy social cohesion in his state. He was however still in a delicate position politically as the Ottoman State was located in between the Byzantine Empire and hostile princendoms who often joined their forces against the Ottomans. Othman Ghazi kept running his forces against the Byzantine forces while he tried to consolidate his relationship with some of the princendoms in the West through familial relationships and military operations.
Added to all these, what seems appealing was the strength of religious motives fostering his legitimacy; Othman Ghazi recieved the backing of the leading spiritual figures of the time, which gave him a prestigeous standing as the carrier of a holy mission. The dream he reportedly saw was the most striking example reflecting this conviction; early historian Asikpashazade narrates:
‘‘As ‘Othman Ghazi slept, he saw in his dream that a moon arose out of this holy man’s breast and entered ‘Othman Ghazi’s breast. Then a tree sprouted out of ‘Osman Ghazi’s navel, and the shadow of the tree covered the entire world. In its shadow, there were mountains, with streams issuing from the foot of each mountain. And from these flowing streams some people drank, and some watered gardens, and some caused fountains to flow.
When he awoke, he came to the Shaykh and told him the dream. The Shaykh said, “‘Othman, my son! Sovereignty has been granted to you and your descendants. And my daughter Malkhun is to be your wife.” He immediately gave his daughter to ‘Othman Ghazi and married them
This Shaykh, Edebali, who interpreted ‘Othman Ghazi’s dream and gave tidings of sovereignty for himself and his descendants, had a disciple with him whose name was Kumral Dede, son of Dervish Durdi. That dervish now spoke, “O ‘Othman! Since sovereignty has been given to you, it is proper for you to give us some token of gratitude.” ‘Othman replied, “At whatever time I become king, I will give you a city.” The dervish said, “This little village is sufficient for us: we have renounced the city.” ‘Othman Ghazi accepted this. The dervish said, “Give us a document to that effect.” ‘Othman Ghazi replied, “Do you think that I write documents, that you want a document from me? Here is my sword. It was left to me by my father and my grandfather. I will give it to you. And I will also give you a goblet. Let them remain together in your hands, and let them preserve this stamp. And if God accepts me for this service, my descendants will recognize this sign, and will accept your claim.” Now that sword is still in the hands of Kumral Dede’s descendants. And whenever any of ‘Othman Ghazi’s descendants saw that sword, they bestowed favors upon those dervishes and they renewed the sword’s scabbard. Every one of the House of ‘Othman who has become king has made a pilgrimage to that sword. . . .’’
The U.S. administration designated Charge D'affaires to Ankara to participate the inauguration ceremony of president-elect Erdogan.
Erdogan said he would ask incoming prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu to form a new government on Thursday and a new cabinet of ministers would be announced the following day.
An Egyptian-brokered ceasefire came into effect on Tuesday, bringing 51 days of relentless Israeli attacks to a halt in the blockaded coastal enclave.
Today’s newspapers cover Turkey’s ruling AK party’s congress to elect a new party chairman, and thousands of Turks forming what is hoped to be the world’s largest portrait of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, founder of the Republic of Turkey.
It is not yet clear who he will be meeting during his stay, but there are believed to be no plans for him to meet Turkish Foreign Minister-turned-Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu.
The nation recorded 162,445 medical tourists by the end of the first half of 2014.
At least 100 people are arriving from Iraq each day, many of them smuggled across the border by locals, sometimes paying up to $1,000 per family.
The Chinese Foreign Ministry said it is coordinating with Turkish authorities to find the workers, kidnapped by militants on Monday.
Many Yazidis fleeing from the war in Iraq are also waiting for shelter on the border with Turkey, according to some reports.
The advance of ISIL has alarmed Ankara and its Western allies, forcing them to step up intelligence sharing and tighten security cooperation.
Turkish dailies on Tuesday report on outgoing President Gul's farewell to the public and to his counterparts, and the dam river tragedy in Turkey's southeastern province of Siirt.
The firms were asked to extend their bids until the end of the year, the Defence Undersecretariat said in a statement.
Turkish Union of Bars head Metin Feyzioglu said he will attend a new legal year ceremony and speak, after President-elect Recep Tayyip Erdogan said he would not attend in case of a Feyzioglu address.
Turkish FM Ahmet Davutoglu is to become prime minister after Erdogan is sworn in as president August 28, said Deputy PM Bulent Arinc.
The mission will end in January 2015 and not be renewed after being extended once last year, according to lower house of the Dutch parliament
The authorities are now making efforts to find the missing men.