Women exposed to second-hand smoke while pregnant are more likely to experience a stillbirth or have babies with birth defects, according to an analysis.
Stillbirth was 23 percent more common and birth defects were 13 percent more common among women who lived or worked with smokers, according to a report published in Pediatrics.
"Women need to be protected from passive smoke exposure before conception and throughout pregnancy," said Jo Leonardi-Bee, a professor at the University of Nottingham in England and one of the authors of the study, in an email to Reuters Health.
Although the increased risks of stillbirth and birth defects are not massive, she warned: "They are a lot larger in magnitude than one would anticipate if we believe that passive smoke only has one percent of the effect of active smoking."
Leonardi-Bee and her colleagues combined data from 19 studies that looked at the effects of sceondhand smoke on the rates of miscarriage, newborn death and birth defects.
The rates of miscarriage and newborn death were similar whether or not women were exposed to secondhand smoke, and when looked at individually, no single birth defect was linked to secondhand smoke. Only when the researchers pooled the data on all birth defects did they see an increased risk.
None of the women smoked while pregnant, but they breathed in secondhand smoke from colleagues or family members. In half the studies analyzed, fathers were the primary source of secondhand smoke.
Other medical experts said that the research confirmed what many doctors have assumed about the risks of secondhand smoke, though the findings did not prove that tobacco smoke causes birth defects or stillbirths.
Even if it did, it was unclear if this was due to the mother inhaling the father's secondhand smoke or if his smoking was affecting his sperm.
Stephen Grant of Magee-Womens Research Institute in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who wasn't involved in the study, said he was most intrigued by the association between secondhand smoke and birth defects.
"What we have here is that it's possible all the chemicals in tobacco smoke could have some effect on development," he told Reuters Health.
The London-based Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) estimated that in 2013, at least 93 percent of logging in Mozambique was illegal -- and that most of the illicit timber ended up sold in China.
Erik Solheim told AFP in an interview on Monday that even if the United States withdraws, China and the European Union will step in and take the lead to implement the global agreement on reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Polyethylene represents 40 percent of Europe's demand for plastic products, mostly in the form of packaging and shopping bags.
The High Court had demanded ministers come up with a plan to tackle illegal levels of nitrogen dioxide pollution, largely caused by diesel emissions, by 3:00 pm (1400 GMT) on Monday.
PEG-2S promises to tackle superbugs that threaten world health
The change affects grazing conditions for the 146,000 or so semi-domesticated reindeer in Norway who feed on lichen and moss under the snow.
The discovery of the giant shipworm, a species never before studied, marked the first time scientists had live specimens in hand, according to an article published this week in American journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
As many as one in 45 children are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, according to a recent study by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
A full 1.6 billion people remain affected by NTDs -- more than 500 million of them children -- but that number is down from more than two billion in 2010, WHO said.
For the first time ever in modern history, a team of scientists Monday documented as what they're describing as large-scale river reorganization as a result of human-caused climate change.
In the next few hours he will receive a healthy kidney thanks to a pioneering system that has made Spain the world leader in organ transplants for the past 25 years.
Japan's corals, the northernmost in the world, could offer important data to bolster knowledge about marine life, as Australia's Great Barrier Reef faces a threat to its survival.
China is the world's largest consumer and producer of tobacco, and the industry provides the government with colossal sums.
During his time leading IAS, Mark Wainberg organised the 13th International AIDS conference in Durban, South Africa, and he also co-chaired the same conference in Toronto in 2006.
The UN's health agency said the epidemic had left more than 25,000 people sick, warning that number was likely to double by the end of June.
80 percent of countries acknowledge that their financing is still not enough to meet their nationally-set targets for increasing access to safe water and sanitation, it found.