From giant whirlpools to currents 1,000 km wide, scientists said on Monday they have uncovered how vast amounts of carbon are locked away in the depths of the Southern Ocean, boosting researchers ability to detect the impact of climate change.Oceans curb the pace of climate change by absorbing carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels. The Southern Ocean is the largest of these ocean carbon sinks, soaking up about 40 percent of mankind's CO2 absorbed by the seas.
But until now, researchers were unsure what mechanisms were involved because of the remoteness and sheer size of the Southern Ocean.
"By identifying the mechanisms responsible for taking carbon out of the surface layer in the ocean, we're in a much better situation to talk about how climate change might impact that process," said oceanographer Richard Matear, one of the authors of the Southern Ocean study published in the journal Nature Geoscience.
The team of British and Australian scientists found that currents that take carbon from the surface to the depths occur at specific locations, not uniformly across the ocean as previously thought.
They found that a combination of winds, currents and whirlpools create conditions for carbon to be drawn down into the deep ocean to be locked away for decades to centuries. Some of the plunging currents were up to 1,000 km (600 miles) wide.
In other areas, currents return carbon to the atmosphere as part of a natural cycle.
But overall, the Southern Ocean is large net carbon sink, the authors say, calculating the area between 35 and 65 degrees south takes up the equivalent of 1.5 billion tonnes of CO2 a year, or more than the annual greenhouse gas emissions of Japan.
Scientists worry that a warming planet could disrupt this natural pattern by changing wind patterns and ocean currents.
Matear said by figuring how the Southern Ocean worked and using a new monitoring network of robotic ocean-going devices researchers will get a much better handle on how the seas between Australia and Antarctica are changing.
"Climate change will definitely interact with this process and modulate it," Matear, of Australia's state-funded Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, told Reuters.
Among those hit were the London newspapers Daily Telegraph, Independent and Evening Standard, which reported that other news organisations had also been targeted.
The European Union's privacy watchdogs agreed on a set of guidelines to help them implement a ruling from Europe's supreme court that gives people the right to ask search engines to remove personal information
Iraq bars private companies from owning fixed networks transiting domestic data and anything they build is usually seized by the government.
The new crew faces a busy six months in orbit, including a trio of spacewalks to prepare the station for a new fleet of U.S. commercial space taxis
European politicians have grown increasingly concerned about Google's and other American companies' command of the Internet industry, and have sought ways to curb their power
NSA chief Rogers said digital attackers have been able to penetrate such systems and perform "reconnaissance" missions to determine how the networks are put together.
World's largest atomic laboratory finds two subatomic particles; discovery alters shape of physics.
When bank employees were primed to think less about their profession and more about normal life, they were less inclined to dishonesty.
Comets date back to the formation of our solar system and have preserved ancient organic molecules like a time capsule.
The State Department's network was infiltrated last month, but the department did not disconnect the affected systems until over the weekend, according to federal technology information website
Before dying, Philae defied the odds and radioed its science results back to Earth for analysis.
New funds from the Department of Energy will go toward building supercomputers for nuclear weapons and other research.
The presidential library statement said that 50,000 books and archive documents from 27 libraries around Russia had already been handed over for the process of establishing the "alternative Wikipedia".
Hackers could potentially steal login credentials, access sensitive data stored on iOS devices and remotely monitor activity on those devices, the government said.
First spacecraft in history to land on comet's surface posts photos on its twitter account.
The Israeli newspaper Yedioth Ahronoth quoted one of the group members as saying that his group had already accessed and blocked the website of the Palestinian Interior Ministry on Tuesday