World Bulletin / News Desk
Pakistani high school student Noman Afzal knows "traitorous" Hindus are to blame for the bloodshed that erupted when British India split into two nations 70 years ago. His history textbook tells him so.
The official unwillingness to confront the bitter legacy of Partition -- and the skewed portrayals being peddled in classrooms from New Delhi to Karachi -- is hindering any hope of reconciliation between the arch-rivals, experts say.
August marks 70 years since the subcontinent was divided into two independent states -- Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan -- and millions were uprooted in one of the largest mass migrations in history.
An untold number of people -- some estimates say up two million -- died in the savage violence that followed, as Hindus and Muslims fleeing for their new homelands turned on one another, raping and butchering in genocidal retribution.
The carnage sowed the seeds for the acrimony that prevails today between India and Pakistan, and generations later this defining moment in the subcontinent's history is still polarised by nationalism and rancour.
In a government-approved grade five history textbook used in schools in Pakistan's Baluchistan province, Hindus are described as "thugs" who "massacred Muslims, confiscated their property, and forced them to leave India".
"They looked down upon us, that is why we created Pakistan," said 17-year-old Afzal from Pakistan's Punjab province, reeling off a stock answer from his history textbook.
On the other side of the border, Mumbai schoolboy Triaksh Mitra learned how Mahatma Gandhi fought for a unified India free from British subjugation while the Muslim League -- the political party led by Pakistan's founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah -- sided with the colonial rulers to carve out their own nation.
"But what they hadn't really told us was the Muslim side of it," the 15-year-old said of his Partition studies.
Israeli army frequently conducts wide-ranging arrest campaigns in the occupied West Bank
Probe by Israeli rights group B'Tselem concludes that intentional fatal shot was fired at the Palestinian paramedic.
"I accept our intelligence community's conclusion that Russia's meddling in the 2016 election took place," Trump said
Here are five takeaways from the news conference that followed their first summit, in the Finnish capital Helsinki:
An abandoned mining town in California went on sale for $ 1.4 million
Roughly 80 percent of Iraq’s crude oil exports originate from oilfields in Basra province
Kerem Shalom is Gaza's only functioning commercial crossing
More than 130 Palestinians have been killed by Israeli fire since March
Resources strained as thousand crossing into Canada from US
American Civil Liberties Union granted request to halt deportations for one week after reunification
Trump declared that US-Russian relations have turned a corner after a summit with his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin that he described as "open, direct and deeply productive".
Operation is aimed at restoring confidence after last year’s illegitimate poll on Kurdish regional independence
The U.S. State Department is negotiating a potential deal to sell Turkey the Raytheon Co Patriot missile defense system as an alternative to the Russian-made S-400 system Turkey has agreed to purchase, an official said on Monday.
ISIL still maintains a limited presence in northern and western Iraq
90 more migrants in critical condition found inside shipping containers