Sharif Huseyin declared himself Khalifa

On the 3rd March 1924, after the Turkish Grand National Assembly had absolved the caliphate the former Emir of Mecca, Serif Huseyin declared himself “Caliph”.

Sharif Huseyin declared himself Khalifa

Sharif Huseyin declared himself Khalifa

 

On the 3rd March 1924,  after the Turkish Grand National Assembly  had absolved the caliphate the former Emir of Mecca, Serif Huseyin declared himself “Caliph”.

 

In order to keep the Middle East under their control, England incited nationalism, sectariism and division amongst the Muslims.  They did not refrain from making promises and offering money to the leading Arab families and tribes of the region. They signed secreat treaties with certain groups. One of these was “Sherif Huseyin”, who'se real name was “Huseying Bin Ali”. Sherif Hussein who was allocated authority and power was for the province of the Hijaz region under Ottoman rule started to collaborate with the governors in his desginated province. He made efforts to influence and dominate the governors and politically alligned himself to gain more power. At the end of the 1912 electoins he successfully placed his sons Abduall and Faysal as parlementarians in the Meclis-i Mubusan.  Later in order to organise a state by the name of “Jordan”, Hicas deputy “King” Abdullah Effendi who was killed in Jerusaslem, sent him to Egypt to gain the support of Hidiv Abbas Hilmi Pasa.

 

It is at this point that he worked towards an independent state and collabored with the  British represenativat |Lord Kitcheners and his son as the intermediary between himself and the British. Unable to get any solid results and not taken seriously, the former Emir after the first world war and despire numerous attempts at staying loyal to his Calipha continued to work with the Briish allies. The English who did not take him seriously at first and after the deafeat of the Dardenelles and Kutuul Ammare , the British were prepared to use any advantage to damage the Ottomans, contacted the Emir who was in the pursuit of power and rule. The British High Commissioner in Egypt intitiated a series of meeings where they came to terms of the creation of an Arab empire under the auspices of the British government with the Emir of Mecca as the  king.

 

The British who agreed on the creation of an Arab state that encapsulated Syria, Irak and the Arab Peninsula with the exception of lebanon, also signed an agreemed with Neic Emirin Ibn Saud in December that year for an independent state that covered the southerin peninsula and the persian gulf region with the exception of Kwait. This way the land that was promised to the Emir recognised the dominant rule of Necid Emir Ibn Saud. In November 1915, Britain who informed France of these meetings, who devised a secret agreement together called the Sykes-Picot Agreement.

 

The Emir of Mecca had no knowledge of this agreement, and the “Great Arab Empire” and in fact, the “Caliphate” dream was initiated  with a revolat against the Ottoman Caliphete in June 1916, the Emir presented this as a result of the tension caused by Jamal Pasha who had ordered the hangings of a  Arabs in Damascus and Beirut who were wrongly accused of treason.  Despite British lojistic  and financial support, this did not represent the entire  Arab world however with an armed force of 4000-5000 soldiers, in November 1916 the Arabs declared themselves as an indpendent kingdom. With limited support. Accusations of treason, loss of power together with the exposure of the Sykes-Picot agreement, as well as the involvement of the Jews supporting the Balfour Declaratoin on Palestinian land,  he continued to pursue the establishment of an independent Arab empire. In 1918, the Arab Kingdom was declared publicly.  However, even though the end did not result in the Arab empire, it paved the way for  a power conflict with Saudia Arabia's Ibn Saud, which resulted in him being declaed the King of the Hijaz. The former Emir who was now titled Hijaz King Hussein I, his son, the former Ottoman deputy Faisal, was first declared Syrian King Faisal I but after kidnapped by the French was then declared the Iraqi King Faisal I under the shadow of the British. His other son, Abdullah was announced as the King of Trans Jordan. Although the kingdom wasn't as large as he hoped for, Sheref Hussein had one other goal, and that was to be known as the “Calipha” or the “Sultan and Imam of the Muslims”.

What gave rise to this hope was the abolishment of the Ottoman empire by the Turkish Grand National Assembly and boarding the British battleship Malayia, and the incident surround the last Ottoman son's Mehmet Vahidududn 6th. Viewd with antipathy around the Islamic world, with their eyes sealed on a Caliphate, King Hussein who had drawn swords against the Ottomans immediately focused on the “Caliphate” issue. Even though he had parted from Istanbul, the Turkish Grand National Assembly on the 18th November 1922 declared his cousin Prince Abdulmecid Efendi, the “Caliph” and despite believing this term meant to be used exclusively for him,  he wrote a letter and invited him to the Hijaz.  His real motive for this was to invite Calipha Vahiduddin and request him to waiver his rights and pass it to him. The former Sultan Vahiduddin is aware of this but “taking adavantage of the invitation, wanted to visit the Kaba, the direction of Muslims and while separate from his homeland, despite the sadness of the abolishment of the empire and with the pain of migration to visit and allow his spirit to prosper, to alleviate this sadness and grief”. Caliph Abdulmecid Efendi was deeply disturbed by this invitation. Telling Sultan Vahiduddins daughter and  at the same time who happened to be the bride of the family, “There hasn't been enough time passed since their treachery and rebellion since they had offended Huseyin when they were in power.  As a result, to accept this invitation is not appropriate to the caliphate status and to the past sultanant. If you consider the advantage of him having people left to support him, then I will need to be his biggest enemy”.  In exchange, Sultan Vahiduddin, wrote that his trip to the Hijaz had nothing to do with personal benefit and that he would be not be a tool for any misconduct.  Sultan Vahiduddin arrived at the Hijaz on the 15th January 1923 assuming that there would be a permanent Islamic Empire. King Huseyin who rolled his sleeves and played perfect host sparing no expense to impress Sultan Vahiuddin.  The Sultan who through the extreme hospitality shown by the King sensed that there was another intention underneath it, to the point where he actually had turned to his head doctor Resat Pasa, saying “This degree of hospitality is starting to make me feel sense. I hope that with what Allah has given us there is nothing sinister behind it”.

 

Despite Hijas King Hussein 1 not having complete control over the Hijaz and despite the Saudi leadership still seeking the Caliphate undetterred by the approaching Wahhabi threat, the King allocated Sultan Vahiuddin to Taif with under the preence that the Sultan wa unhappyw with the Makkan climate and weather.  Straight after,  he  worked to  on the population of  Syria, Amman, and Palesine to recognise him as the Calph. With  lineage going back to the Quraish tribe, and using this as the main reason that the Caliph should be of Quraish lingeage King Husain used this propganda to say that Sultan Vahiduddin was “a distinguished guest” and gave no room for the term “Caliph” to be used when referring to him. In fact, he refused to publish and distribute a declaration emphaszing “Calipha”  that  Sultan Vahiduddin had written in Mecca addressing the Islamic world. His efforts to convince others of his value as Caliph was costly and cumbersome. The Meclisu-l Ala Islamic community and the Mufti of Jerusalem had a meeting which resulted in, “Hijz King Hussein 1 did not carry the required conditions for being a “Caliph” and that the forming of a Caliphate Council would be acted and accepted according to that” which still did not yield the required result. With the departing of Sultan Vahiduddin from the Hijaz, King Hussein's, dreams of being a caliph collapsed. But only for a short time.

 

On the 3rd March 1924, number 431, “The abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate. "its meaning and concept is inherent to the Turkish government and to the Turkish Republic." came into effect. When this decision was made, King Hussein I appeared on the scene once more. The last Caliph, Abdulmecid Efendi, in a statement issued on the 11 March 1924, said “ Ablolishment of the Caliphate denies the sharia that was determined by the Turkish Republic in Ankara”  and  as a result, that the “decision was not a decision of parliament but one that makes allegiance to the Islamic world” of which at the same time, Sharif Hussein, declared himself “Caliph”.

 

In regard to the close relations and that outside of the Hijaz, no other Islamic country and society did not recognise him as Caliph and rebuffed him,

 

Last Mod: 22 Ağustos 2015, 10:49
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