Egypt after January 25: Three years of turmoil

In the three years since Mubarak's removal, Egypt has continued to see deadly political violence and mounting polarization.

Egypt after January 25: Three years of turmoil

World Bulletin / News Desk

Three years ago, Egypt's January 25 revolution led to the ouster of autocratic president Hosni Mubarak after three decades in power.

In the three years since Mubarak's removal, which have been marked by several fateful milestones, the country has continued to see deadly political violence and mounting polarization.

The following is a timeline of watershed events seen over the last three years of continuous turmoil:

January 25, 2011 ('The spark')

Mass anti-government demonstrations break out in Cairo and several cities. Thousands of protesters take over downtown Cairo's Tahrir Square, chanting "The people want the fall of the regime."

In the northeastern Suez province, the uprising's first falls in clashes with security forces.

January 28, 2011 ('Friday of Rage')

Demonstrations gather momentum across the country as deadly clashes break out security forces up efforts to quell protests. After an afternoon of carnage, police from the streets and protesters control of Tahrir Square, a sit-in in a dramatic escalation against the regime. Meanwhile, police stations are torched in several cities, prompting Mubarak to impose a curfew and .

February 2-3, 2011 ('The Battle of the Camel')

Mubarak supporters ride horses and a camel into Tahrir Square in an attack , prompting four hours of deadly clashes.

February 11, 2011 (Mubarak steps down)

After 18 days of , Mubarak's vice-president, Omar Suleiman, announces Mubarak has stepped down Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF) with affairs.

February 13, 2011

SCAF issues a Constitutional Declaration to power to an elected civilian authority within six months or until parliamentary and presidential elections. The declaration Egypt's 2010 parliament and suspends the 1971 constitution.

February 18, 2011 ('Friday of Victory')

Demonstrators celebrate Mubarak's departure with mass demonstrations in Tahrir Square.

March 3, 2011

SCAF assigns former transportation minister Essam Sharaf as new prime minister, replacing Ahmed Shafiq, .

March 19, 2011 (Constitutional referendum)

Millions of Egyptians vote in an referendum on amendments to the suspended 1971 constitution.

March 22, 2011

Protesters break into the offices of Egypt's notorious secret police apparatus .

March 30, 2011

SCAF issues a second Constitutional Declaration constitutional amendments, approved by 77 percent in the March 19 referendum. The declaration includes the permanent suspension of the 1971 constitution.

April 16, 2011

An Egyptian court dissolves Mubarak's National Democratic Party.

August 3, 2011

A landmark trial begins for Mubarak, his two sons, his interior minister and six of aides. corruption and ordering the killing of protesters during the uprising.

August 19, 2011

SCAF issues a third Constitutional Declaration stipulating that parliamentary polls . The , however, is amended in September a 70 percent list/30 percent individual seat structure following between the country's political forces and the army.

October 9, 2011 ('The Maspero massacre')

At least 27 mostly Coptic- protesters killed in a violent crackdown by and riot police on a demonstration Cairo's Maspero state television headquarters. Protesters had marched on Maspero to protest an attack on a church in Upper Egypt. The incident, which became known as "the Maspero massacre," was the since the January 28 "."

November 19, 2011 (The Mohamed Mahmoud Street clashes)

Clashes erupt between anti-government protesters and security forces near Interior Ministry headquarters Tahrir Square. The violence, which on for five days, at least 41 dead and hundreds injured.

November 22, 2011

SCAF accepts the resignation of Essam Sharaf and the end of June 2012 as the deadline for holding presidential elections.

November 25, 2011

SCAF appoints former Mubarak-era Kamal al-Ganzouri, who from the political arena for 11 years, to replace Sharaf.

November 28, 2011

Egypt's first post-Mubarak parliamentary elections begin.

December 23, 2011

Clashes erupt outside cabinet headquarters in Cairo between anti-Ganzouri protesters and military police, leaving 17 dead and over a thousand injured. Egypt's Scientific Complex, home to thousands of volumes of academic material, is torched during the melee.

January 23, 2012

Egypt's first democratically elected parliament, dominated by Islamist , holds its first session.

January 25, 2012

Protesters mark the first anniversary of the uprising with demonstrations scuffles between Islamists and "revolutionary" activists over on Egypt's military council.

January 29, 2012

Elections begin for the Shura Council, the upper house of Egypt's parliament.

February 1, 2012

Football riots erupt in Port Said Stadium, leaving at least 72 "Ultras Ahlawy" football fans dead and hundreds injured. Police and residents implicated in the .

May 2-4, 2012

Twelve die and dozens are injured in clashes between security forces and protesters who staged a sit-in in front of Defense Ministry headquarters in Cairo the military power to a civilian .

May 24, 2012

The first round of the country's first free presidential election is led by Muslim Brotherhood Mohamed Morsi and Ahmed Shafiq, Mubarak's last prime minister.

June 14, 2012

The elected lower house of parliament is dissolved on a legal technicality based on a ruling by Egypt's Supreme Constitutional Court.

June 17, 2012

Egyptians vote in a runoff election between Morsi and Shafiq.

June 24, 2012

Morsi is declared the winner after narrowly defeating Shafiq in the run-off vote.

June 30, 2012

Morsi becomes Egypt's first freely elected president after being sworn in before the Supreme Constitutional Court.

August 5, 2012

Sixteen Egyptian soldiers and army officers are killed in the restive Sinai Peninsula.

August 13, 2012

Morsi sacks SCAF leaders Mohamed Tantawi and Sami Anan, along with other leaders of key army divisions, and appoints Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi, head of Egypt's Military Intelligence apparatus, as the new defense minister.

November 17, 2012

At least 50 schoolchildren when a train crashes into a school bus at an Upper Egyptian railway crossing.

November 19, 2012

Security forces on Mohamed Mahmoud Street clash with demonstrators who had gathered to demand justice for protesters . Activist Gaber Salah, also known as "Jika," violence.

November 22, 2012

Morsi issues a temporary Constitutional Declaration making presidential decrees immune from judicial challenge and reinstating parliament's dissolved lower house. The decree is met by anger by the judiciary and secular opposition forces, prompting the latter to form the anti-Morsi National Salvation Front umbrella group.

December 1, 2012

Head of Islamist-led constituent assembly, Judge Hossam al-Ghiryani, officially submits a constitution to the presidency.

December 4-5, 2012

At least ten die and hundreds injured in clashes between Morsi supporters and opponents outside presidential palace.

December 9, 2012

Morsi rescinds some elements of his November 22 decree following protests and the resignation of a advisors.

December 15, 2012

Egyptians vote in a national referendum on the new draft constitution.

January 25, 2013

Anti-Brotherhood protesters on the second anniversary of the January 25 uprising.

April 26, 2013

Tamarod, an anti-Morsi signature campaign, begins gathering signatures to demand snap presidential polls. mass protests on June 30 the end of Morsi's first year .

June 23, 2013

Al-Sisi releases a statement giving Egypt's one week to amid of dissent against Morsi.

June 28, 2013

Morsi supporters a sit-in in eastern Cairo's Rabaa Al-Adawiya Square in anticipation of mass anti-Morsi protests called for by the Tamarod and supported by secular opposition forces.

June 30, 2013

Anti-Morsi protesters stage mass demonstrations across the country demanding step down and snap elections.

July 1, 2013

Al-Sisi releases his second statement giving political camps 48 hours to reach a settlement " people's demands."

July 2, 2013

Clashes between Morsi supporters and opponents leave at least 22 dead near Cairo University.

July 3, 2013

Al-Sisi, flanked by a number of political and religious figures, a post-Morsi roadmap that includes the the 2012 constitution, installing of interim president, constitutional parliamentary and presidential polls by 2014.

July 8, 2013

Clashes erupt between pro-Morsi protesters and security forces in front of Cairo's Revolutionary Guards headquarters, leaving at least 61 dead and hundreds injured.

On the same day, army-installed interim president Adly Mansour issues a Constitutional Decree calling for the formation of a 50-member constitutional panel tasked with amending the 2012 national charter.

July 16, 2013

Police disperse a demonstration by Morsi supporters in central Cairo's Ramses Square, leaving at least dead and over 250 injured.

July 26, 2013

Demonstrators converge on public squares across the country in response to calls by al-Sisi for a "popular mandate" to fight "violence and terrorism" as two pro-Morsi sit-ins – in Cairo's Rabaa al-Adawiya and Nahda squares – gather momentum.

July 27, 2013

Clashes erupt between security forces and protesters outside the Rabaa Square sit-in, leaving at least 80 dead and over 300 injured.

August 14, 2013

Security forces disperse the two 45-day-old pro-Morsi sit-ins . The number of fatalities, though still contested, is in the several hundred.

August 16, 2013

Security forces disperse Morsi supporters central Cairo's Fatah Mosque. The violence leaves at least 173 dead and over 1,300 injured.

August 19, 2013

Militants gun down 25 off-duty police conscripts in the town of Rafah amid an uptick in attacks on security in Sinai.

September 23, 2013

A court dissolves the Muslim Brotherhood and bans all its activities.

October 6, 2013

At least 57 are killed security forces disperse to Tahrir Square.

November 4, 2013

Morsi appears in court to charges the murder of protesters during the presidential palace clashes .

November 17, 2013

Train crashes into a truck in the town of Dahshur southwest of Cairo killing at least 27 people.

December 23, 2013

A large bomb blast hits a main security headquarters in the Delta province of Daqahliya, leaving at least 14 people dead, and scores injured.

December 25, 2013

The military-backed interim government declares the Muslim Brotherhood a "terrorist organization," blaming it for the Daqahliya attack despite the group's denial of any involvement.

January 14-15, 2014

Egyptians vote in a referendum on an amended of the 2012 constitution. The plebiscite represents the first step of the army-imposed roadmap.

January 18, 2014

Electoral commission announces that the draft charter has been approved by a whopping 98.1 percent of voters. It goes on to put total voter turnout at 38.6 percent of the electorate.

January 24, 2014

Cairo four explosions in different areas, targets a Cairo police headquarters, leaving six dead and over 80 injured.

Last Mod: 26 Ocak 2014, 10:12
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